Show HN: Hello Kitty

Show HN: Hello Kitty

Japanese fictional character

Hello Kitty (Japanese: ハロー・キティ, Hepburn: Harō Kiti),[6] also known by her full name Kitty White (キティ・ホワイト, Kiti Howaito),[5] is a fictional character produced by the Japanese company Sanrio,[7] created by Yuko Shimizu and currently designed by Yuko Yamaguchi. Sanrio depicts Hello Kitty as a young female gijinka (anthropomorphization) of a Japanese Bobtail cat with a red bow and no mouth.[8] According to her backstory, she is a perpetual 3rd-grade student who lives outside of London.[9] Kitty and her twin sister, Mimi, celebrate their birthday on 1 November 1974.[10][11] Since the cartoon character’s creation, the Hello Kitty media franchise has grown to include clothing, accessories, toys, games, books, manga, anime series, and music albums, along with other various product lines and media productions.

Shortly after Hello Kitty’s creation in 1974, the Hello Kitty vinyl coin purse was introduced by Sanrio on 5 March 1975. Sanrio brought the character to the United States in 1976.[12][13] By 2010, Sanrio had turned Hello Kitty into a global marketing phenomenon,[14] worth $6 billion a year.[15] By 2014, when Hello Kitty was 40 years old, she was worth about $8 billion a year.[16]Hello Kitty has become one of the highest-grossing media franchises of all time.

Hello Kitty is a staple of the kawaii segment of Japanese popular culture.[17] First marketed toward pre-teenage girls, Hello Kitty’s image found commercial success among not only her original target audience but adolescent and adult consumers as well. A variety of products ranging from school supplies to fashion accessories to motor oil[18] have featured the character over the years. A number of Hello Kitty TV series targeted towards children have been produced, as well as several manga comics and anime films. There are Sanrio theme parks based on Hello Kitty: Harmonyland in Hiji, Ōita, Japan;[19]Sanrio Puroland in Tama New Town, Tokyo, Japan; and the former Sanrio Hello Kitty Town in Iskandar Puteri, Johor, Malaysia.[20][21]

Background[edit]

In 1962, Shintaro Tsuji, founder of Sanrio, began selling rubber sandals with flowers painted on them.[22] Tsuji noted the profits gained by adding a cute design to the shoes and hired cartoonists to design cute characters for his merchandise.[22] The company produced a line of character merchandise centered around gift-giving occasions.[23] Hello Kitty was designed by Yuko Shimizu and was added to the lineup of early Sanrio characters in 1974.[13] The character’s first appearance on an item was on a vinyl coin purse sold in Japan, where she was pictured sitting between a bottle of milk and a goldfish bowl.[24] She first appeared in the United States in 1976.[12]

Sanrio decided to make Hello Kitty British because foreign countries, including Britain in particular, were trendy in Japan at the time of Hello Kitty’s creation. Sanrio already had several characters set in the US, and it wanted Hello Kitty to be different.[17][25] Shimizu got the name Kitty from Lewis Carroll‘s Through the Looking-Glass; during a scene early in the book, Alice plays with a cat she calls Kitty.[26] Sanrio’s motto is « social communication, » and Tsuji wanted the brand name to reflect that by including a greeting. He first considered « Hi Kitty » before finally settling on « Hello Kitty, » her current name.[27]

Spokespeople for Sanrio have confirmed that Hello Kitty has no mouth, as they want people to « project their feelings onto the character » and « be happy or sad together with Hello Kitty. »[17][28] Another explanation Sanrio has given for Hello Kitty’s lack of a mouth is that she « speaks from the heart. She’s Sanrio’s ambassador to the world and isn’t bound to any particular language. »[25] Representatives for Sanrio have said that they see Hello Kitty as a symbol of friendship, which they hope she will foster between people across the world.[17] There has been speculation[29][30] that Hello Kitty has her origins in Maneki Neko—the name « Hello Kitty » is a back-translation of Maneki Neko, meaning « beckoning cat » in English. Despite this, no definitive statement supports that speculation.[31]

History[edit]

Hello Kitty sold well immediately after her 1974 launch, and Sanrio’s sales increased sevenfold before they slumped temporarily in 1978.[17][32] New series involving Hello Kitty with different themed designs are released regularly, following current trends. Yuko Yamaguchi, the main designer for most of Hello Kitty’s history, has said that fashion, movies, and TV inspire her in creating new designs.[17][32]

Originally, Hello Kitty was only marketed towards a child and preteen audience. In the 1990s, the target market for Hello Kitty was broadened to include teenagers and adults as a retro brand.[17][25] Marketing to those who could not get Hello Kitty merchandise as children, and those who fondly remember items they had, Sanrio began selling Hello Kitty branded products such as purses and laptops.[17][25][32] The 1994–1996 Face series was the first to be designed specifically for mature consumers.[17]

According to Sanrio, Hello Kitty was appearing on 12,000 new products each year as of 1999.[27] By 2008, Hello Kitty was responsible for half of Sanrio’s $1 billion net income, and there were over 50,000 different Hello Kitty branded products in more than 60 countries.[25] Beginning in 2007, following trends in Japan, Sanrio began using darker designs for Hello Kitty with more black and less pink and pulled away from kawaii styles.[32]

Hello Kitty and Mimi celebrated their 40th Anniversary on 1 November 2014. The « Arigato Everyone Birthday Celebration » took place in Sanrio Puroland in Tokyo for several days.[33]

On 1 January 2020, Sanrio Hello Kitty Town in Iskandar Puteri, Malaysia permanently closed down due to lack of attendance.[20] On 21 February 2020, the Sanrio Puroland theme park (also known as Hello Kitty Land[34]) in Tokyo closed due to the COVID-19 pandemic.[34] Park officials hoped to have it reopened in early April 2020.[34] In June 2020, Sanrio issued a statement that its founder, Shintaro Tsuji, would retire from his position as Sanrio’s chief executive on 1 July 2020, and his grandson, Tomokuni Tsuji, 31, would take over to « ensure efficient decision making. »[35]

Products[edit]

The Hello Kitty Airbus A330-200.

Louis Vuitton Hello Kitty Mini

Originally aimed at the pre-adolescent female market, the Hello Kitty product range has expanded from dolls, stickers, greeting cards, clothes, backpacks, lunch boxes, piggy banks, pencils, erasers, accessories, school supplies and stationery to purses, toasters, televisions, other home appliances, massagers, and computer equipment. These products range from mass market items to high-end consumer products and rare collectibles.[36] As of 2014[update], more than 50,000 Hello Kitty product lines were available in over 130 countries.[37]

High-end[edit]

Sanrio and various corporate partners have released Hello Kitty-branded products, including the Hello Kitty Stratocaster electric guitar (since 2006, with Fender in the US) [38] and an Airbus A330-200 commercial passenger jet airliner, dubbed the Hello Kitty Jet (2005–2009, with EVA Airways in Taiwan).[39] In late 2011 and early 2012, EVA Air revived their « Hello Kitty Jets » with their three new A330-300s. However, due to high demand,[40] the airline added two more alongside their existing A330-200s in mid-2012. A year later, EVA Air introduced one of their 777-300ERs as another Hello Kitty Jet, which featured other Sanrio characters as well as Hello Kitty.

In 2009, Hello Kitty entered the wine market with a collection of four wines available for purchase online, continuing the expansion of product lines targeted at older audiences.[41]

Jewelry[edit]

In Spring 2005, Simmons Jewelry Co. and Sanrio announced a partnership. « Kimora Lee Simmons for Hello Kitty » was launched exclusively at Neiman Marcus, with prices ranging from $300 to $5000. Designed by Kimora Lee Simmons and launched as the first in a series of collections, the jewelry was hand-made and consisted of diamonds, gemstones, semi-precious stones, 18 karat gold, sterling silver, enamel, and ceramic.[42]

In Fall 2008, Simmons Jewelry Co. and Sanrio introduced a collection of fine jewelry and watches named « Hello Kitty® by Simmons Jewelry Co. » The collection launched with Zales Corporation to further expand the reach of the brand, developing accessories for a wide variety of Hello Kitty fans. Meant to attract a youthful audience, the Hello Kitty-themed designs consisted of colorful gemstones set in sterling silver.[43]

Establishments[edit]

There is a themed restaurant named Hello Kitty Sweets in Taipei, Taiwan, which opened in 2008. The restaurant’s decor and many of its dishes are patterned after the Hello Kitty characters.[44][45] Another restaurant called the Hello Kitty Diner opened in the Chatswood area of Sydney, Australia,[46] and a Hello Kitty dim sum restaurant opened in Kowloon, Hong Kong.[47]

Hello Kitty cafés have opened around the world, including in Seoul and other locations in South Korea;[48]Bangkok, Thailand;[49]Adelaide, Australia;[50]Irvine, California;[51] and the Santa Anita Mall in California.[52]

In 2008, a Hello Kitty-themed maternity hospital opened in Yuanlin, Taiwan. Hello Kitty is featured on the receiving blankets, room decor, bed linens, birth certificate covers, and nurses’ uniforms. The hospital’s owner explained that he hoped that the theme would help ease the stress of childbirth.[53][54]

Hello Kitty is included as part of the Sanrio livery at the Japanese theme parks Harmonyland and Sanrio Puroland.

Clothing[edit]

In January 2018, Puma collaborated with Hello Kitty to create the new Puma X Hello Kitty For All Time collection, which features the company’s signature sneakers for both children and adults.[55][56]

Musical Instruments[edit]

In 2006, Fender partnered with Hello Kitty to create the Hello Kitty Stratocaster under its squire sun-brand.[38] While initially aimed at pre-teen girls, the Hello Kitty Stratocaster has since been used by famous guitarists including Zakk Wylde, John5, and Slash.[citation needed] The guitar’s cult following has caused prices to rise, with second hand guitars going for over £660 in 2020.[citation needed]

Animated series[edit]

There have been several different Hello Kitty TV series. The first animated television series was Hello Kitty’s Furry Tale Theater, an anime series that was 13 episodes long and aired in 1987.[57] The next, an OVA titled Hello Kitty and Friends, came out in 1993 and was also 13 episodes long. Hello Kitty’s Paradise came out in 1999 and was 16 episodes long. Hello Kitty’s Stump Village came out in 2005, and The Adventures of Hello Kitty & Friends came out in 2006 and has aired 52 episodes. A crossover series under the name Kiss Hello Kitty (that paired animated versions of the members of the rock band KISS with Hello Kitty) was announced in March 2013. Produced by Gene Simmons, this show was supposed to air on The Hub Network (now Discovery Family),[58] but it never came to fruition.

Hello Kitty’s Paradise [ja] was a long-running live-action children’s program that aired on TXN from January 1999 to March 2011. It was the longest-running weekly kids’ television program in the network’s history. In January 2011, the show’s creators mutually agreed to end the series after twelve seasons, with the final episode being broadcast on 29 March 2011.

In August 2018, Sanrio began streaming a CGI animated series on YouTube. It features Hello Kitty talking to the camera about her life in the style of vlogging YouTubers.[59][60]

Sanrio began streaming the newest 2D animated Hello Kitty series Hello Kitty and Friends Supercute Adventures on YouTube on 26 October 2020.[61]

Comics[edit]

Hello Kitty had two manga comics serialized in Ribon, a shōjo manga magazine – Hello Kitty Doki (ran from May 2007 to April 2008)[62] and Hello Kitty Peace (released in June 2008).[63]

In March 2016, Sanrio launched a webcomic featuring Hello Kitty as a strawberry-themed superhero called « Ichigoman » (ichigo meaning strawberry), who fights monsters with the help of her giant robot. The webcomic is created by Toshiki Inoue and Shakua Sinkai and updates once a month.[64] The Ichigoman alter-ego originates from a 2011 exhibition of Yuko Yamaguchi’s artwork.[65]

Music[edit]

Hello Kitty has her own branded album, Hello World, featuring Hello Kitty-inspired songs performed by a collection of artists including Keke Palmer, Cori Yarckin, and Ainjel Emme under Hello Kitty’s Lakeshore Records record label.[66] Hello Kitty was also chosen by AH Software to be the basis of the new Vocaloid Nekomura Iroha (猫村いろは, Nekomura Iroha)[67] to celebrate the 50th anniversary of Sanrio.[68]

Hello Kitty was mentioned in the parody song « Another Tattoo (parody of Nothin’ On You by B.o.B and Bruno Mars) » from « Weird Al » Yankovic’s 2011 album Alpocalypse.

Canadian singer-songwriter Avril Lavigne has written and recorded a song called « Hello Kitty » for her fifth studio album, Avril Lavigne, released in 2013.

Musician Yoshiki unveiled the Hello Kitty theme song « Hello Hello » in November 2014 at the first Hello Kitty Con. Yoshiki, who was the first celebrity to have his own Hello Kitty doll, « Yoshikitty, » was approached by Yamaguchi to compose the song seven years prior. Yoshiki dedicated the anthem to Tsuji Kunihiko, the son of Sanrio founder Shintaro Kunihiko.[69]

Video games[edit]

There are numerous Hello Kitty games starting with the release of the first title for Famicom in 1992; however, the majority of these games were never released outside of Japan. Hello Kitty also has made cameo appearances in games featuring other Sanrio characters, such as the Keroppi game, Kero Kero Keroppi no Bōken Nikki: Nemureru Mori no Keroleen. Special-edition consoles such as the Hello Kitty Dreamcast, Hello Kitty Game Boy Pocket, and Hello Kitty Crystal Xbox have also been released exclusively in Japan.

Hello Kitty appeared as a guest character in Sega’s Sonic Dash in 2016, as part of Sega’s partnership with Sanrio. Hello Kitty and My Melody (another Sanrio character) appeared together in Super Mario Maker as unlockable Mystery Mushroom costumes.

Partial list of Hello Kitty video games[edit]

Films[edit]

Three Hello Kitty anime films were released in Japan. Hello Kitty: Cinderella released in 1987, Hello Kitty no Oyayubi Hime released in 1990, and Hello Kitty no Mahō no Mori no Ohime-sama released in 1991.[74]

On 3 July 2015, Sanrio announced a full-length Hello Kitty theatrical feature initially planned for 2019.[75] In early 2019, it was revealed that New Line Cinema will be teaming up alongside Sanrio and Flynn Picture Company for an “English language film based on the venerable kid brand.”[76] In 2021, it was reported that Jennifer Coyle and Leo Matsuda have been hired to direct the film with Lindsey Beer set to pen the script.[77]

Reception[edit]

The Hello Kitty brand rose to greater prominence internationally during the late 1990s. At that time, several celebrities, such as Mariah Carey, had adopted Hello Kitty as a fashion statement.[25] Newer products featuring the character can be found in a large variety of American department stores.

Hello Kitty’s popularity in Japan peaked in the late 1990s when she was the country’s top-grossing character. In 2002, Hello Kitty lost her place as the top-grossing character in Japan in the Character Databank popularity chart. In a 2010 survey, she was in third place behind Anpanman and Pikachu from Pokémon.[32] In 2010, The New York Times attributed the character’s relative decline in Japan to her biography not being « compelling enough to draw many fans. » The newspaper later wrote that analysts called the characterization « weak, »[32] and that Hello Kitty not having a mouth has dampened her success as an animated TV character.[32] Hello Kitty has nevertheless remained one of the top three highest-grossing characters in Japan as of 2013.[78]

Overseas, her global popularity has increased over the years, with worldwide annual sales reaching $8 billion in 2013.[16] She has been particularly popular in other Asian countries for decades, such as in China, where her cultural impact is comparable to that of Barbie in the Western world.[79] In the United States, she is recognized by more than 80% of young adults in the 18–23 age group, as of 2016[update].[80]

Accolades[edit]

In May 2008, Japan named Hello Kitty the ambassador of Japanese tourism in both China and Hong Kong (where the character is exceptionally popular among children and young women), marking the first time Japan’s tourism ministry had appointed a fictional character to the role.[81] Dr. Sharon Kinsella, a lecturer at Oxford University on Japanese sociology, called the selection of Hello Kitty « a bit farcical … as if a dumbed-down cultural icon … can somehow do something significant to alter the gnarly and difficult state of China-Japan relations. »[25]

UNICEF has also awarded Hello Kitty the exclusive title of UNICEF Special Friend of Children.[82][83]

Sales[edit]

Hello Kitty merchandise sales
Year(s) Retail sales Notes Ref
1978–1993 $8,000,000,000 $500 million annual sales [80]
1994 $1,200,000,000 [84]
1995 $500,000,000 [80]
1996 $3,680,000,000 [a]
1997–1999 $11,000,000,000 [b]
2000 $3,300,000,000 Japan licensed merchandise sales [c]
2001 $500,000,000 [80]
2002 $1,000,000,000 Overseas sales [89]
2003 $4,750,000,000 [90]
2004 ?
2005 $890,000,000 Japan licensed merchandise [d]
2006 ?
2007–2008 $1,962,000,000 Japan licensed merchandise [e]
2009 $5,000,000,000 $1 billion in United States [94]
2010 $6,000,000,000 [15]
2011 $4,100,000,000 Licensed merchandise sales [95]
2012 $4,039,000,000 Licensed merchandise, $1.08 billion in USA [96]
2013 $8,000,000,000 [16]
2014 $6,500,000,000 Licensed merchandise sales [97]
2015 $3,756,000,000 Licensed merchandise sales [98]
2016 $4,400,000,000 Licensed merchandise sales [99]
2017 $2,663,000,000 Licensed merchandise sales [100]
2018 $2,645,000,000 Licensed merchandise sales [101]
2019 $630,000,000 Japan licensed merchandise sales [f]
Total known sales $84,515,000,000

Controversy[edit]

In July 2008, the Dutch artist Dick Bruna, creator of Miffy, alleged that Hello Kitty is a copy of Miffy (in Dutch: Nijntje), being rendered in a similar style. He stated disapprovingly in an interview for the British newspaper The Daily Telegraph:

‘That,’ he says darkly, ‘is a copy [of Miffy], I think. I don’t like that at all. I always think, « No, don’t do that. Try to make something that you think of yourself. »‘[104]

Mercis, the firm that managed copyrights for Bruna, took Sanrio to court over their Hello Kitty-associated character Cathy, a rabbit which made her first appearance in 1976 and which Mercis argued infringed the copyright for Miffy. A court in Amsterdam ruled in favour of Mercis in November 2010 and ordered Sanrio to stop the production and sale of merchandise featuring Cathy in the Benelux countries. However, in June 2011, the two companies announced that they had reached a settlement agreement to end their legal dispute. Sanrio stopped using the Cathy character, and the two firms jointly donated €150,000 for reconstruction after the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami.[105]

Musti, a cat character created by Belgian cartoonist Ray Goossens, was also cited as an inspiration for Hello Kitty.[106][107]

Sculpture[edit]

In 1994, artist Tom Sachs was invited to create a scene for Barneys New York Christmas displays and titled it Hello Kitty Nativity. In the scene, the Virgin Mary was replaced by Madonna with an open Chanel bra, the three Kings were all Bart Simpson, the stable was marked by a McDonald’s logo, and the Christ Child was replaced by Hello Kitty. This contemporary revision of the nativity scene[108] demonstrated Sachs’ interest in the phenomena of consumerism, branding, and the cultural fetishization of products. Many audiences instead took offense to the artwork, which received backlash from Catholic organizations for its misuse of Christian symbolism.

In 2009, Tom Sachs’ Bronze Collection was shown at the Public art space in Manhattan’s Lever House, as well as in the Baldwin Gallery in Aspen, Colorado, and the Trocadéro in Paris. The collection featured white bronze casts of a foam core Hello Kitty sculpture – a style distinctive to the artist. As of April 2010, the Wind-Up Hello Kitty sculpture is still on display at Lever House.[109] Although Sachs did not seek permission to use the character in his work, a brand marketing manager for Sanrio was quoted as saying « You know, there was Marilyn Monroe and Andy Warhol, and then Michael Jackson and Jeff Koons. When you’re an icon, that’s what happens. »[110]

In 2015, a 9-foot tall pearlescent Hello Kitty sculpture by artist Sebastian Masuda was exhibited at the Dag Hammarskjold Plaza in New York City, as part of the Japan Society’s exhibition: Life of Cats: Selections from the Hiraki Ukiyo-e Collection.[111]

See also[edit]

  1. ^ ¥400 billion[85] ($3.68 billion)
  2. ^ ¥1,200 billion[85] ($11 billion)[86]
  3. ^ ¥360 billion[87] ($3.3 billion)[88]
  4. ^ ¥98.05 billion[91] ($890 million)[88]
  5. ^ 2007–2008 licensed merchandise sales in Japan – ¥202.84 billion ($1,962 million)

    • 2007 – ¥104.7 billion[92]
    • 2008 – ¥98.14 billion[93]

  6. ^ Japan licensed merchandise sales in 2019 – ¥68.7 billion[102][103] ($630 million)

References[edit]

  1. ^ MEGUMI HOUSEキングレコードによる林原の紹介ページ。出演履歴にハローキティは出てこない
  2. ^ キティちゃんの声優はあの有名声優だった! だれだかわかる? | ガジェット通信 GetNews
  3. ^ « Your Speaker Coach — Your Speaking Journey ». Your Speaking Journey. Retrieved 3 July 2020.
  4. ^ a b
    « Hello Kitty Voices – Behind The Voice Actors ». behindthevoiceactors.com. Retrieved 1 July 2020. Check mark indicates role has been confirmed using screenshots of closing credits and other reliable sources.CS1 maint: postscript (link)
  5. ^ a b
    « Hello Kitty ». Sanrio. Archived from the original on 24 June 2011. Retrieved 22 December 2010.
  6. ^
    サンリオキャラクターたちの本名、言えますか? (in Japanese). 11 July 2008. Retrieved 11 July 2008.
  7. ^
    « Hello Kitty | cartoon character ». Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 8 September 2018.
  8. ^
    « Hello Kitty Hooks Generations On Cute, Kitsch ». NPR. 3 December 2010. Retrieved 13 August 2012.
  9. ^
    Miranda, Carolina A. « Hello Kitty is not a cat, plus more reveals before her L.A. tour ». latimes.com. Retrieved 6 March 2018.
  10. ^
    « Hello Kitty ». Sanrio Puroland. Retrieved 19 February 2020.
  11. ^
    « Mimmy ». Sanrio Puroland. Retrieved 19 February 2020.
  12. ^ a b
    Dhamija, Tina (1 April 2003). « Designing an Icon: Hello Kitty Transcends Generational and Cultural Limits ». ToyDirectory. Archived from the original on 6 February 2009. Retrieved 28 December 2008.
  13. ^ a b
    « Hello Kitty celebrates 30 ». China News Daily. 19 August 2005. Retrieved 28 December 2008.
  14. ^
    Tabuchi, Hiroko (14 May 2010). « In Search of Adorable, as Hello Kitty Gets Closer to Goodbye ». The New York Times. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
  15. ^ a b
    « Hello Kitty making aliyah ». Ynetnews. Yedioth Ahronoth. 18 February 2011. Retrieved 27 January 2021.
  16. ^ a b c
    Martinez, Michael; Hurtado, Jaqueline (2 November 2014). « Hello Kitty turns 40, draws 25,000 fans to convention ». CNN. Retrieved 27 January 2021.
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h i
    Takagi, Jun (21 August 2008). « 10 Questions for Yuko Yamaguchi ». TIME. Retrieved 31 October 2009.
  18. ^
    Murph, Darren (18 June 2010). « Hello Kitty engine oil, because not everyone can drive electric cars ». Engadget. Archived from the original on 7 December 2020. Retrieved 7 December 2020.
  19. ^
    « Sanrio Character Park Harmonyland ». Harmonyland.
  20. ^ a b https://www.straitstimes.com/asia/se-asia/fans-say-goodbye-to-hello-kitty-as-johor-theme-park-calls-it-a-day
  21. ^
    « Sanrio Hello Kitty Town | Attractions in Puteri Harbour JB Malaysia ». Puteri Harbour. Retrieved 27 April 2019.
  22. ^ a b
    « Asia Times Online – The trusted news source for information on Japan ». Atimes.com. Archived from the original on 14 December 2003. Retrieved 2 October 2018.CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  23. ^
    « Sanrio Europe ». Archived from the original on 1 October 2009. Retrieved 14 September 2009.
  24. ^
    « Hello Kitty Turns 35 ». Time. 1 June 2009. Retrieved 14 March 2012.
  25. ^ a b c d e f g
    Walker, Esther (21 May 2008). « Top cat: how ‘Hello Kitty’ conquered the world ». The Independent. London. Retrieved 19 September 2008.
  26. ^
    « Hello Kitty, You’re 30 ». St. Petersburg Times. 15 November 2004. Retrieved 22 March 2012.
  27. ^ a b
    Tracey, David (29 May 1999). « The Small White Cat That Conquered Japan ». New York Times.
  28. ^ Walker, Rob. Buying In: The Secret Dialogue Between What We Buy and Who We Are. Random House, Inc., 2008. 18. Retrieved from Google Books on 30 August 2010.
    ISBN 1-4000-6391-4,
    ISBN 978-1-4000-6391-8.
  29. ^
    Nielson, Paula. « Japanese Hello Kitty Derived from Maneki Neko ». Archived from the original on 12 February 2015. Retrieved 30 August 2014.
  30. ^
    « Maneki Neko The Beckoning Cat and Nang Kwak ». Lucky Mojo Curio Company. Retrieved 30 August 2014.
  31. ^
    Yano, Christine (29 April 2013). Pink Globalization: Hello Kitty’s Trek Across the Pacific. Duke University Press. p. 127. ISBN 978-0822353638. Retrieved 30 August 2014.
  32. ^ a b c d e f g
    Tabuchi, Hiroko (14 May 2010). « In Search of Adorable, as Hello Kitty Gets Closer to Goodbye ». NYTimes.com.
  33. ^
    « Archived copy ». Archived from the original on 7 September 2017. Retrieved 27 November 2018.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  34. ^ a b c https://en.puroland.jp/special/release_lang/pdf/y2020/20200221_SET_Temporary%20Closure_EN_FNL.pdf
  35. ^
    Business, Kaori Enjoji, CNN. « The 92-year-old founder of Hello Kitty is handing the business to his grandson ». CNN. Retrieved 16 June 2020.
  36. ^
    Paschal (18 May 2003). « Sanrio’s Hula Kitty heads to the beach ». Honolulu Star-Bulletin. Retrieved 30 April 2015.
  37. ^
    Hinson, Tamara (30 November 2014). « Inside the cult world of Hello Kitty ». The Guardian. Retrieved 23 November 2019.
  38. ^ a b
    Blass, Evan (30 June 2006). « Hello Kitty Stratocaster goes high-end ». engadget. Retrieved 19 June 2019.
  39. ^
    « World’s first ‘Hello Kitty’ airplane to make debut Lunar New Year flights ». The Taipei Times. 13 December 2005.
  40. ^
    Driscoll, Shea (30 June 2006). « EVA Air’s Hello Kitty jet to fly permanently between Singapore and Taiwan from June ». The Straits Times. Retrieved 19 June 2019.
  41. ^
    Garcia, Catherine (26 March 2010). « Please pass the bubbly, Hello Kitty ». Entertainment Weekly. Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved 2 November 2015.
  42. ^
    « Kimora Lee Simmons for Hello Kitty ». Archived from the original on 24 August 2011. Retrieved 4 May 2011.
  43. ^
    « Hello Kitty Fine Jewelry ». Archived from the original on 12 May 2011. Retrieved 4 May 2011.
  44. ^
    Catherine Shu (27 March 2009). « RESTAURANTS : Hello Kitty Sweets ». Retrieved 17 October 2009.
  45. ^
    « Hello Kitty Sweets resto in Taipei (Part I) ». 30 April 2008. Retrieved 28 December 2008.
  46. ^
    « Here Kitty Kitty…Hello Kitty Diner Comes To Sydney ». Notquitenigella.com. Retrieved 2 October 2018.
  47. ^
    « Hello Kitty Now Has Her Own Dim Sum Restaurant in Hong Kong ». Time. Retrieved 9 March 2018.
  48. ^
    Lim, Hyun-wook (20 November 2010). « Hongdae’s bohemian raps and dancing ». Joongang Daily. Archived from the original on 9 June 2013. Retrieved 6 March 2013.
  49. ^
    « Archived copy ». Archived from the original on 2 October 2018. Retrieved 27 November 2018.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  50. ^
    « Hello Kitty, how do you dine? ». SBS. Retrieved 15 January 2020.
  51. ^
    LUNA, NANCY. « First Hello Kitty ‘pop-up’ cafe opens in Irvine ». The Orange County Register. Retrieved 29 March 2017.
  52. ^
    Eidell, Lynsey. « Sorry, Starbucks: There’s Now a PERMANENT Hello Kitty Café ». Teenvogue.com. Retrieved 2 October 2018.
  53. ^
    « Hello baby! Hello Kitty welcomes Taiwan newborns ». Reuters.com. 5 December 2008. Retrieved 9 December 2008.
  54. ^
    « Taiwan hospital a hit with Hello Kitty fans ». The Sydney Morning Herald. 21 January 2009. Retrieved 6 March 2009.
  55. ^
    Schuldt, Brooke (31 January 2018). « Puma Is Collaborating With Hello Kitty to Launch the Cutest Sneakers Ever ». Travel+Leisure. Retrieved 4 February 2019.
  56. ^
    SINNER. « Maintenance ». SINNER. Retrieved 5 August 2020.
  57. ^
    Crump, William D. (2019). Happy Holidays—Animated! A Worldwide Encyclopedia of Christmas, Hanukkah, Kwanzaa and New Year’s Cartoons on Television and Film. McFarland & Co. p. 132. ISBN 9781476672939.
  58. ^
    Lockner, Melissa (29 March 2013). « Hello Kitty and KISS to Team Up For New Animated Series ». TIME. Retrieved 18 January 2015.
  59. ^
    Chapman, Paul (30 August 2018). « Hello Kitty Makes Her Virtual Youtuber Debut ». Crunchyroll.com.
  60. ^
    Lee, Dami (30 August 2018). « Hello Kitty has no mouth, and she must vlog ». The Verge.
  61. ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eC_5OwDYUVs
  62. ^ Hello Kitty Doki (manga) at Anime News Network‘s encyclopedia
  63. ^ Hello Kitty Peace (manga) at Anime News Network‘s encyclopedia
  64. ^
    Sims, Chris (16 March 2016). « New Online Manga Sees Hello Kitty Fighting Monsters With Her Giant Robot ». Comics Alliance. Archived from the original on 18 March 2016.
  65. ^
    « Hello Kitty’s Superhero Alter Ego Ichigoman Gets Web Manga ». Anime News Network. 15 March 2016.
  66. ^
    « Lakeshore Records ».
  67. ^
    « VOCALOID2 猫村いろは » [Vocaloid 2 Nekomura Iroha] (in Japanese). AH Software. Retrieved 16 September 2010.
  68. ^
    Fujimoto, Ken (16 August 2010). « ハローキティといっしょ!×VOCALOID2って何だ!? » [Hello Kitty Together with Vocaloid 2; What the!?] (in Japanese). Livedoor. Archived from the original on 20 August 2010. Retrieved 20 August 2010.
  69. ^
    Parker, Lyndsey (1 November 2014). « Yoshiki Debuts Official Hello Kitty Theme Song at Hello Kitty Con ». Yahoo!. Retrieved 30 January 2016.
  70. ^
    « Hello Kitty’s Big Fun Piano ». MobyGames. Retrieved 28 December 2008.
  71. ^
    « Hello Kitty: Big City Dreams ». IGN. Retrieved 28 December 2008.
  72. ^
    « Hello Kitty Parachute Paradise ». ZIO Interactive. Archived from the original on 5 August 2009.
  73. ^
    Latshaw, Tim (30 March 2014). « Review: Hello Kitty Kruisers ». Nintendo Life. Retrieved 7 July 2017.
  74. ^ Hello Kitty: Cinderella (anime) at Anime News Network‘s encyclopedia
  75. ^
    Jaafar, Ali (3 July 2015). « Hello Kitty’ To Be Turned Into Film For 2019 Release ». Deadline. Nikkei. Retrieved 5 July 2015.
  76. ^
    Barsanti, Sam (5 March 2019). « An American Hello Kitty movie is in the works ». The A.V. Club. Retrieved 5 March 2019.
  77. ^
    « Hello Kitty’ Movie Finds Directors ». The Hollywood Reporter. 2 March 2021. Retrieved 3 March 2021.
  78. ^
    CharaBiz DATA 2014(13) (in Japanese). Character Databank, Ltd. 2014.
  79. ^
    Prange, Christiane (2016). Market Entry in China: Case Studies on Strategy, Marketing, and Branding. Springer. p. 155. ISBN 9783319291390.
  80. ^ a b c d
    Greffe, Xavier (29 June 2016). The Artist–Enterprise in the Digital Age. Springer Science+Business Media. p. 127. ISBN 978-4-431-55969-6. 22,000 products, an annual turnover of half a billion dollars between 1978 and 2002, a recognition rate of more than 80% among young Americans in the 18–23 age group!
  81. ^
    « Hello Kitty named Japan tourism ambassador ». NBC News. 19 May 2008. Retrieved 1 October 2008.
  82. ^
    « UNICEF Special Friend of Children ». Sanriotown.com. 23 March 2007. Archived from the original on 20 December 2008. Retrieved 1 October 2008.
  83. ^
    « Tienda Hello Kitty ». The Japan Times Online. 10 June 2004. Retrieved 1 October 2008.
  84. ^
    « World Vid Vendors Fight Over Anime ». Billboard. 107 (4): 71. 28 January 1995.
  85. ^ a b
    « 女性の支持集めるヒット商品は »真・近・感 » – ニュース ». Nikkei BP. Nikkei Business Publications. 9 July 2002. Archived from the original on 2 June 2014. Retrieved 2 June 2014.
  86. ^
    « Official exchange rate (LCU per US$, period average) (Japan) ». World Bank. 1999. Retrieved 13 August 2018.
  87. ^
    Market Share in Japan. Yano Research Institute. 2005. p. 18. Rank _ 1 | Hello Kitty | Market Size _ 3,600
  88. ^ a b
    « Official exchange rate (LCU per US$, period average) (Japan) ». World Bank. 2000. Retrieved 13 August 2018.
  89. ^
    Pellitteri, Marco; Bouissou, Jean-Marie; Fratta, Gianluca Di; Martorella, Cristiano; Suvilay, Bounthavy (2010). The Dragon and the Dazzle: Models, Strategies, and Identities of Japanese Imagination : a European Perspective. Tunué. p. 90. ISBN 9788889613894.
  90. ^
    « Hello Kitty celebrates 30th birthday ». CBC News. 1 November 2004. Retrieved 27 January 2021.
  91. ^
    « 日本のアニメ・マンガを取り巻く状況 » (PDF). Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (MLIT). 6 March 2007. pp. 25–6. Retrieved 27 January 2021.
  92. ^
    Takahara, Kanako (10 June 2008). « Pawing in enough to be a fat cat ». The Japan Times. Retrieved 25 January 2021.
  93. ^
    « Japan’s Character Products Market in 2008 ». Licensing Industry Merchandiser’s Association. Character Databank (CharaBiz). 2010. Archived from the original on 8 September 2018. Retrieved 7 September 2018.
  94. ^
    « Hello Kitty grows up: How Japan’s Sanrio has expanded the character’s empire ». AOL. 19 March 2010. Retrieved 27 January 2021.
  95. ^
    « 37 entertainment/character properties surpass $100m each in licensed merchandise sales at retail ». The Licensing Letter. The Free Library. 17 September 2012.
  96. ^
    « 44 entertainment/character properties reach $100 m in sales of licensed merchandise ». The Licensing Letter. The Free Library. 3 November 2014.
  97. ^
    « Hello Kitty food truck to stop and say, ‘Hello, St. Louis« . The Business Journals. 31 January 2017. Retrieved 27 January 2021.
  98. ^
    « Retail Sales of Licensed Merchandise Based on $100 Million+ Entertainment/Character Properties ». The Licensing Letter. November 2017. Archived from the original on 2 February 2018. Retrieved 31 May 2018.
  99. ^
    « Hello Kitty and her multibillion-dollar success story ». Financial Review. 7 December 2017. Archived from the original on 25 May 2018.
  100. ^
    « Retail Sales of Licensed Merchandise Based on $100 Million+ Entertainment/Character Properties ». The Licensing Letter. 23 July 2018. Archived from the original on 9 May 2019. Retrieved 12 August 2018.
  101. ^
    « 32 Entertainment/Character Properties Make the Cut for $100MM List for 2018 ». The Licensing Letter. 18 November 2019. Retrieved 23 November 2019.
  102. ^
    CharaBiz DATA 2020(19) (in Japanese). Character Databank. May 2020.
  103. ^
    « Content Tokyo 2020 》Vtuber、疫情中重塑品牌、以AI創作,日本內容產業熱議的3件事 » [Content Tokyo 2020 》Vtuber, Rebranding During the Epidemic, Creating With AI, 3 Things That Are Hotly Discussed in the Japanese Content Industry]. Central News Agency (Taiwan) (in Chinese). 30 December 2020. Retrieved 3 February 2021.
  104. ^ Dick Bruna, creator of the Miffy books, talks about his life and work The Daily Telegraph, 31 July 2008,
  105. ^
    « Japan’s Hello Kitty resolves bunny battle with Miffy ». news.yahoo.com. 8 June 2011. Retrieved 4 March 2017.
  106. ^
    « Miffy cracks down on copyright infringements | Radio Netherlands Worldwide ». Rnw.nl. 7 September 2011. Archived from the original on 17 October 2012. Retrieved 13 August 2012.
  107. ^
    « Le Matin, l’actualité en direct: sports, people, politique, économie, multimédia ». Lematin.ch. 19 July 2012. Retrieved 13 August 2012.
  108. ^
    Bruce Weber (13 December 1994). « Barneys Halts Store Display Of Pop Creche in Window ». The New York Times. Retrieved 22 April 2010.
  109. ^ « Bronze Collection » Tom Sachs website
  110. ^ Goldstein, Andrew M. « Kitsch Kitties Stolen by Unctuous Artist » New York magazine (18 May 2008)
  111. ^
    Mlynar, Phillip (29 April 2015). « A Giant Hello Kitty Sculpture Just Popped Up In New York City – Catster ». Catster.com. Retrieved 2 October 2018.

External links[edit]

<!–
NewPP limit report
Parsed by mw1261
Cached time: 20210414013150
Cache expiry: 2592000
Dynamic content: false
Complications: [vary‐revision‐sha1]
CPU time usage: 2.192 seconds
Real time usage: 2.525 seconds
Preprocessor visited node count: 9256/1000000
Post‐expand include size: 240674/2097152 bytes
Template argument size: 8120/2097152 bytes
Highest expansion depth: 23/40
Expensive parser function count: 14/500
Unstrip recursion depth: 1/20
Unstrip post‐expand size: 331230/5000000 bytes
Lua time usage: 1.102/10.000 seconds
Lua memory usage: 21910291/52428800 bytes
Lua Profile:
Scribunto_LuaSandboxCallback::getExpandedArgument 240 ms 18.5%
recursiveClone 140 ms 10.8%
Scribunto_LuaSandboxCallback::getAllExpandedArguments 120 ms 9.2%
dataWrapper 120 ms 9.2%
? 100 ms 7.7%
Scribunto_LuaSandboxCallback::match 60 ms 4.6%
validateData 60 ms 4.6%
safe_join 40 ms 3.1%
40 ms 3.1%
select_one 40 ms 3.1%
[others] 340 ms 26.2%
Number of Wikibase entities loaded: 1/400
–>

Laisser un commentaire

Votre adresse e-mail ne sera pas publiée. Les champs obligatoires sont indiqués avec *

You have successfully subscribed to the newsletter

There was an error while trying to send your request. Please try again.

web-breaking-news will use the information you provide on this form to be in touch with you and to provide updates and marketing.